Accounting Post



Sunday, October 21, 2018

Cash Flow Early Warning Signs Are Crucial When The Credit Crunch Bites

Cash Flow Early Warning Signs Are Crucial When The Credit Crunch BitesProducing a cash flow is not difficult providing the business already has reasonable bookkeeping or accounting records. Manual accounts are fine although accounting software is likely to produce the best information base from which a cash flow forecast can be prepared.

There is not one specific format that a cash flow forecast can take. Each business may require varying degrees of accounting information and accounting cash flow templates can be anything from a detailed list of all cash incomings and outgoings to totals of the main elements.

In essence a cash flow forecast represents the anticipated movement of the money coming in and flowing out of a business. Larger businesses that use sophisticated accounting software and employ accountants will already have cash flow statements as part of the financial control function.

Many small business organisations including those using accounting software may have the technical ability to produce a cash flow forecast but often either do not do so or ignore the use of the liquidity forecast as an essential business tool. Small business is the area most at risk through ignorance of using a cash flow forecast.

A simple cash flow forecast would be a comparison of the monthly movements in the working capital of a business by comparing the movements in the current assets taken from the balance sheet.

Preparing a cash flow statement based upon just the working capital ignores fixed asset investments and financing of the balance sheet of which a small business usually has individual knowledge anyway. They are important issues and can have a huge impact on business liquidity but the area discussed in this article concerns mainly the working capital cash flow forecast.

A working capital cash flow forecast is a comparison of the current assets and current liabilities shown in the balance sheet. Current assets include stock, debtors and the cash or bank balance while current liabilities include creditors and the bank balance if the business is in overdraft.

Start the template by listing these balances from the last set of prepared accounts entering each account heading on a different row. That provides a snapshot of the company liquidity. Add into the forecast the annual sales and annual purchases.

By dividing the debtors that is the sales income still owed to the business into the sales turnover and multiplying by 365 the average number of days debtors are outstanding is calculated.

On a similar basis by dividing the creditors which is the total purchase expenditure owed by the business into the total purchase expenditure and also multiplying by 365 the average number of days creditors outstanding is calculated.

The next stage in the cash flow forecast would be to add into the succeeding columns the forecast sales and purchases for the periods for which the cash flow forecast is being prepared. A monthly forecast would be suitable for most businesses as it would only be on a monthly basis that a balance sheet is prepared.

Having entered the forecast sales and expenditure it is then necessary to split these figures over the forecast months. Having forecast the monthly sales and expenditure the cash flow forecast then needs to show when those sales are expected to be received and when the purchases are expected to be paid. This should be calculated using the average number of days credit from the first set of actual figures used when preparing the forecast.

A forecast is required of the likely stock levels taking into account seasonal and strategic changes. The combined increase or decrease in the debtors, stock, creditors and also other fixed asset expenditure, taxes and dividend or financing arrangements has to be calculated to produce a forecast cash and bank balance.

On a separate row it would be useful to record under the cash and bank balance the actual funding available which typically would be the bank overdraft facility.

Having completed the initial working capital cash flow forecast it should then be examined in detailed to determine if the business has sufficient funding to continue trading throughout the forecast period.

The real benefits of the cash flow forecast is not just to compare the movements during the year but to update the forecast by replacing the forecast figures with the actual numbers so progress can be tracked.

The critical use of such a forecast would be to plan how the forecast can be improved by increased stock control, better credit control and extended supplier arrangements. List each planned action and use the cash flow forecast to monitor progress.

By monitoring progress the business is using the working capital cash flow forecast as a business tool and will be alerted to changes providing the critical early warning signs of impending difficulties which will affect many businesses during a credit crunch.

Businesses and small business in particular regularly has periods of lower sales and low profits, even losses. These can be withstood and overcome through the understanding of the specific business and putting effort into the areas requiring action.

Early warning signs of credit tightening and a plan of action are critical to the survival of a business. Sales and net profits determine how well a business does. Cash flow and adequate working capital determines whether a business survives.

Saturday, October 20, 2018

Cash Accounting Or Accrual Accounting

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Carrots In The Workplace

Carrots In The WorkplaceI have looked back at my 10 different jobs over the years and have wondered what would have kept me at that very first position out of college.

I drove a company truck and had free beef as perks. That was 9 jobs ago. Am I very different than any other person in their career? I was a middle manager at a beef feed lot. At the time, I figured I had just landed my dream job right out of college.

An Employee's Perspective

At first, I was very nervous as a new employee of a large beef company. I knew tons about the company because I had grown up in and around that industry, but now I was a part of it. The newness and nervousness soon wore off and I began to settle in and really make things happen.

This feeling of making a difference in the company was what helped drive me. However, the praise for doing a good job would have to be self talk because I wasn't going to hear 'good job' from any other source!

Yes, the company truck was great to drive and the beef was what's for dinner, but these things weren't near enough for me to stay on past a year and a half. What was I missing? I needed some additional carrots!

The Pressure Cooker

As a new manager straight from college, I had a lot to learn. I knew that I needed my guys (sorry gals, there were no females on the feed lot) to perform at a high level. That was not easy at times. Weather conditions could be brutal and we were in the middle of chaos because of the remodel and new construction going on. With so many employees to manage, I began to feel a little overwhelmed.

I had pressure from the General Manager to keep costs low and still get things done efficiently. I felt squeezed in! I wanted to reward employees for a job well done, but could not even squeeze out a nickel raise for my best employees.

Changes were Inevitable

Many of the 30 employees had more than 5 years experience and would be difficult to replace. I heard complaint after complaint of not enough pay and being overworked! Oh, and in agriculture jobs, there is no such thing as getting paid overtime. I knew it wouldn't be long and the best employees would be looking for work elsewhere. Sure enough, it happened. Four top employees within two weeks were gone.

What was the reason? They found greener pasture on the other side of the fence! Employee turnover began to look like a revolving door. I felt handcuffed, because of the restraints from the top. New inexperienced employees replaced the best workers I had on the lot. Yup, you can guess what happened next.

My general manager was happy because salary expenses had decreased. Less experienced workers meant lower wages. New problems came with the new employees. Inexperience around cattle meant more sick cattle which led to higher mortality rates. Yes, the company was 'saving money' in salaries, but was eating profits on the other end. Sick and dead cattle do not become that juicy steak on your plate!

The madness continued until one day I had enough. I walked through the revolving door as well to find greener pastures. I suppose in some ways I have found my green pasture. It's on a ranch in the middle of nowhere, NM! No manager lording over me, and no minions clamoring for a raise.

I know for a fact I would still be at that company had they listened to a middle manager that wanted a few carrots for his guys and a little praise for a job well done.

Friday, October 19, 2018

Career Change after 50

Career Change after 50Making a career change after 50 years of age presents its own advantages and disadvantages. There is often good reason for looking at a career change after 50.
Many workers find years of hard physical labor leave their body aching and injury too can debilitate a workers ability to perform in the workplace. Even stressful jobs can take their toll on workers in the white collar section of our society. These workers can look for more relaxed jobs and sometimes choose a more outdoor type of work environment as they scale down their workload towards retirement.
Making a career change after 50 years of age means that the worker will bring a wonderful variety of experiences to the workplace. They should take care to list and describe all aspects of their work history in resumes and cvs, so that prospective employers can take advantage of useful skills already learned.
Even though a worker may not think they have relevant skills for a new career, any one who considers a career change after 50 will have a plethora of skills they may not recognize.
From years of driving, keeping accounts, arriving punctually, working as a team member, communicating with client and staff, understanding banking, taxation or social security, a worker develops a skill base that can transfer from one career to another. Making a career change after 50 may mean taking on more training.
The older worker should not be put off by the thought of retraining. A career change after 50 could be the perfect opportunity to peruse an interest that has been put aside for many years. Even a hobby can become a new career if training, enthusiasm and a niche in the industry allow. The more mature worker may find their dream job waiting just around the retraining corner.
Maturity can be a bonus to some employers. Finding someone who has chosen a career change after 50 years of age, provides them with a stable, experienced and dependable worker who has shown themselves capable of success through a lifetime of work. Although more mature the benefits of experience and training can be valuable to the employer. The older worker needs to see their years of training and practiced skills as a valuable asset to present to likely employers. Even in a new field, so many skills are transferable. With a career change after 50 years, the worker will be able to demonstrate, even if in a volunteer capacity to start with, the advantage of their expertise and experience.
Age should not limit the scope of the career change after 50, the more mature worker still has a great deal to offer any employer.

Capital Structure Of Microsoft Corporation

Capital Structure Of Microsoft CorporationCapital structure of a corporation involves the use of its relative debt and equity in order to finance its operation. The more the debt involved the higher the firm's earnings stream riskiness. On the other hand, a very high return rate is expected, bearing in mind that stocks price will be lowered due to the huge debt. However since, the expected return rate is generally high, this will facilitate stock investment to more investors and in turn increasing the stock's price. This clearly illustrates optimal capital structure which is the criteria approached to achieve maximum stock price by equating risk and return. The important factors that affect the capital structure of a corporation include national tax and local creditors' rights.

Currently, the company's capital structure is facing many challenges particularly the windows and windows live division. This has been facilitated by current development in the IT sector where "tablets and smart phones have been introduced in the market" (Charles, p., 34). This has led to the retailing customers reaching for them rather than the old version of desktop. To catch up with the competition, Microsoft Corporation intends to release windows 8 beta. This will facilitate the corporation's market development in an excellent manner (John et al, 43). For instance, the average debt ratio and interest rate for each S&P rating from AAA to B, derived from S&P(2006) by the use of standard and poor's rating and ratios was as follows :

Table A gives the average total debt ratios for ratings from AAA to B. with reference to the table it is true to claim that it is a tendency for a manufacturing company's bond rating, such as Microsoft corp. to decrease as the financial leverage increases in the capital structure. As the company increases its financial leverage, amount in the capital structure in the bond rating drops. Microsoft Corporation's capital structure has changed recently in a way that is not impressing and quick measures need to be put in place so as to avoid total fall of this company.

This is a fact proven by Territory Manager at Microsoft Corporation, Mr. Charles Clark." Currently, the company's capital structure is facing many challenges particularly the windows and windows live division".

In summation, this kind of capital structure does not fit to a company of such class due to a number of reasons,that include tax rate; currently the company's tax rate has gone down as compared to some years back, of which is centrally to what is expected of having reasonably high tax rate. Also most of its partners are not contented with their current state. Again this company is at the verge of loosing the required lower optimal debt value which is a key factor to retaining investors. . Finally the management style of the company tends to shift from aggressiveness to a conservative company, which makes it less inclined hence no much profit expected.

Thursday, October 18, 2018

Capital Formation and Economic Development

Capital Formation and Economic DevelopmentAlmost all economists lay emphasis on capital formation as the major determinant of economic growth. The meaning of capital formation is that society does not apply the whole of its current productive activity to the needs and desires of immediate consumption, but directs a part of it to the making of capital goods: tools and instruments, machines and transport facilities, plant and equipment, all the various forms of real capital that can so greatly increase the efficacy of productive effort. The essence of the process then, is the diversion of a part of society's currently available resources to the purpose of increasing the stock of capital goods so as to make possible an expansion of consumable output in the future. A proper definition must include both material and human capital. Capital formation consists of both tangible goods like plants, tools and machinery and intangible goods like high standards of education, health, scientific tradition and research". According to another school of thoughts, domestic capital formation would include not only additions to constructions, equipment and inventories within the country, but also other expenditure, except those necessary to sustain output at existing levels. It would include outlays on education, recreation and material luxuries that contribute to the greater health and productivity of individuals and all expenditures by society that serve to raise the morale of employed population". Thus the term capital formation covers material as well as human capital.

Capital formation (or accumulation) is regarded as one of the important and principal factors in economic development. The vicious circles of poverty in underdeveloped countries can be broken through capital formation. Due to low levels of income in such countries, demand, production and investment are deficient. This results in the deficiency of capital goods which can be removed by capital formation.

The supplies, of machines, equipment and tools increase. The scale of production expands. Social and economic overheads are created. It is capital formation that leads to the fuller utilization of available resources. Thus capital formation leads lo increase in the size of rational output, income and employment thereby solving the problems of inflation and balance of payment; and making the economy free from the burden of foreign debit. We discuss below the importance of capital formation in detail. The main purpose of economic development is to build capital equipment on a sufficient scale to increase productivity in agriculture, mining, plantations and industry. Capital is also required to construct schools, hospitals, roads, railways, etc. In fine, the essence of economic development is the creation of economic and social overhead capital. This is possible only if there is a rapid late of capital formation in the country, that is, if a smaller proportion of the community's current income or output is devoted to consumption and the rest is saved and invested in capital equipment. The central problem in the theory of economic development is the process of raising domestic saving and investment from 4-5 percent to 12-15 percent of national income.

Investment in capital equipment not only increases production but also employment opportunities. Capital formation leads to technical progress which helps realize the economies of large-scale production and increases specialization. It provides machines, tools and equipment for the growing labor force. Thus capital formation also benefits labor.

Capital formation leads to the expansion of market. It is capital formation which helps remove market imperfections by the creation of economic and social overhead capital, and thus breaks the vicious circles of poverty both from the demand side and the supply side. Further, capital formation makes development possibly even with increasing population. In overpopulated underdeveloped countries the increase in per capita output is related to the increase in capital-labor ratio. But countries aiming at raising the capital-labor ratio have to face two problems. First, the capital-labor ratio falls with increase, in population so that large net investment is needed to overcome the diminution of capital-labor ratio. Second, when population is increasing rapidly, it becomes difficult to have sufficient savings for the required quantity of investment, reason being that a low per capita income keeps the propensity to save at a low level in such a country. The only solution to these problems is a rapid rate of capital formation.

Underdeveloped countries are faced with the problem of balance of payments because they mostly export primary products like raw-materials and agricultural products, and import almost all types of manufactured, semi-manufactured and capital goods. Domestic capital formation is one of the important solutions to this problem of adverse balance of payments. By establishing import-substitution industries, the imports of manufactured and semi-manufactured goods are reduced. On the other hand, with the increasing production of all types of consumer and capital goods the composition of exports changes. Along with agricultural products and industrial raw materials, the exports of manufactured articles also start. Thus capital formation helps in solving the problems of balance of payments.

A rapid rate of capital formation gradually dispenses with the need for foreign aid. In fact, capital formation helps in making a country self-sufficient and reduces the burden of foreign debt. When a country borrows from foreign countries for long periods, it imposes a heavy burden on the future generations. With every loan the debt charges increase day by day which can only be repaid by levying more or/and higher taxes. The burden of taxes increases and money flows out of the country in the form of debt repayments. Therefore, it is capital formation that brings freedom from foreign aid, reduces the burden of foreign debt and makes the country self-sufficient.

The strains of inflationary pressure on a developing economy can be removed to a considerable extent by increased capital formation. The output of agricultural products and manufactured consumer goods tends to increase with a rise in the tale of capital formation. On the other hand, when income increases with capital formation, it raises the demand for goods. In the short run, it is not possible to match this increased demand by increase in supply and this results in the development of inflationary pressure in the economy. It is, however, a steady rise in the rate of capital formation in the long-run that augments the supply of goods, controls inflation and brings stability in the economy.

Capital formation also influences the economic welfare of a country. It helps in meeting all the requirements of an increasing population in a developing economy. When capital formation leads to the proper exploitation of natural resources and the establishment of different types of industries, Levels of income increase and the varied wants of the people are satisfied. They consume a variety of commodities, their standard of living rises and their economic welfare increases.

Lastly, an increase in the rate of capital formation raises the level of national income. The process of capital formation helps in raising national output which in turn raises the rate and level of national income. Thus the rise in the rate and the level of national income depends on the increase in the rate of capital formation. Thus capital formation is the principal solution to the complex problems of underdeveloped countries, and is the main key to economic development.

Can You Drink Alcohol When You Have Hematospermia

Can You Drink Alcohol When You Have HematospermiaHematospermia refers to the presence of blood in the semen or seminal fluid. Normal semen is milky. However, if there is blood in the semen, the semen is obviously abnormal and the diagnosis of hematospermia could be made out correctly. Bleeding and inflammation are found via detailed clinical and laboratory examinations.

Generally speaking, hemospermia is a symptom rather than a disease. In most cases, it is caused by prostatitis or seminal vesiculitis and more tests are requested for diagnosing the condition if hemospermia is found. Once infected with hemospermia, there is blood appearing in ejaculated semen. It is obvious that to see blood in the semen is totally frightening. Conditions are: Some may get a pink or redish semen, some may find that it's white in the beginning but then red or pink semen comes out. A large amount of people with hemospermia have no apparent symptoms, that is to say, no visible blood can be found in their semen. However, there are still red blood cells which can be found microscopically. So it should be pointed out that even if you have no symptoms, it is still possible that you can still be sick since here are numerous conditions and diseases that have no symptoms.

As we know, alcohol can sometimes do good to the health as soon as one drinks reasonably. For example, alcohol can reduce the likelyhood of heart disease and help prevent the formation of blood clots, thus effectively dropping the rate of strokes and hreat attacts. It is said that people drinking moderate amount of alcohol live longer than those who donot drink.Although moderate alcohol consumption benifits people a lot, drinking alcohol while having hemospermia increases the risk of deteriorating the health. Once infected with hemospermia, your body cannot function normally, alcohol may play as an incentive in disordering the body system and make the situation worse. Thus, instead of drinking alcohol, one should receive the treatment as soon as possible.

Since the hemospermia is majorly caused by seminal vesiculitis or prostatitis, the treatment is similar to the treatment of seminal vesiculitis or prostatitis. As the normal medicines like antibiotics can produce resistance to drugs once using too much, seminal vesiculitis and prostatitis are worldwide stubborn diseases. Men with hemospermia having not cured by western medicine for a long time should pay attention to the traditional Chinese medicine. For example, the herbal medicine Anti-inflammatory Pill, Successfully developed by Wuhan Dr. Lee's Clinic through more than ten years of clinical studies and research, it is more effective than other medicine in curing the hemospermia.

Wednesday, October 17, 2018

Can You Deduct Your Home Office As An Expense

Can You Deduct Your Home Office As An ExpenseHaving a desk in your family room and calling it your office doesn't qualify as a legitimate home office. Learn what does qualify so you can get the most out of your expenses.

The number one rule to qualify as a home office is that it must be a separate room, used only as your office. Your kids can't come in and do their homework or any other activity. It's your office - plain and simple.

Now for tax purpose you'll need to know the total square footage of your house or apartment. (Yes, renters can deduct their office too as long as it is a separate room). Now measure the length and width of your office, multiply them to get the square footage of your office. Keep a record of this in your "Year End" file. This file is for all the papers you'll need to take to your accountant during tax time.

If you rent your house or apartment, you'll be able to deduct part of your rent and utilities. If you want to deduct phone costs, you'll need to have a separate business line put into your office. List the monthly phone costs as well as the installation cost under your "Phone" column on your expense spreadsheet.

The amount you can deduct for rent and utilities is the same percentage as the size of your office is to the size of your house or apartment. Let's say the apartment is 1,000 square feet and your office is 10 ft x 10 ft or 100 square feet. That means your office takes up 10% of your total living space.

At the end of the year, you'll be able to deduct 10% of your rent and utility expenses on your taxes.

Keep a copy of your utility bills each month. On each statement, figure what portion of the bill that belongs to the business. Note that amount on the bill and write it down on your spreadsheet under utilities. Let's say your electric bill was $85.00. Note that $8.50 of this bill is a business expense. Pay the bill in full with your personal checking account. And that's it for your monthly expenses.

If you own your own home and you have a room built for your office, you need to keep records of those expenses. Let's say you have a basement and you had walls added to create a separate office. Keep all the receipts (materials and labor) in a separate folder as part of your "Year End" records. These expenses are deducted over a period of time (usually 3-6 years). These are not recorded on your monthly spreadsheet.

So there you have the basics - the size of the office determines the amount of allowable expenses on your taxes, have a separate phone line and save all your receipts.

Can the IRS Garnish Your Paycheck The Truth About The IRS Levy Process and How to Stop It

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eis ur wages,telv is sere on your mloyer. Yur employer will be requre opyoe ag oto fyu acekto the IRSutlyu a eti ete.TeISde o aealof orpyhc;te lo o ob adtestandard deduction amon plus th proa eepinaon bsduo yorfln sau adnme fdpnet.<r>For  xxmmll,,ii yyuu  illnn ttttssii iiggeewwtt nn  eeeedeett((oorreeff,,yyuuwoollddbb allooee oo kee $884400 frr teeyyaa..TTii qquttsstt  112255  ee weekk  rr$$00..66pee oott..TTeeaaoonn  hhttyyuueerr,,aaoovv annddbbyynn  hhseeaaoontt,,muss ee pii vve yyyoorreeppooee oo teeIISS br> Teellvv oo yyuu wwggss wll ooll enn ((aa tteellvv  ssrrllaaee b hh RR bb oorrttxxdeett aaee pii ff rr(()) tee saauuee oof iiiiaaiinn peeeett hhe cllecciinnoo aa br> YYuu ca ppeellaaaannttttee aciin fftteeIIRR  ffee tteellvv nndrrthhe CColleettoo  pppaassProorrmm hh ISS nrraall uuppnnsscclleettoo  ccttiinn dduurnn  hh  ppeell  ff yuu ppeell i sccessffu,,ttee  eevv wwll eerrllaaee..YYuuccnnnnggttiitt hh  eellaass oo hh  eey wwiihh yuu  ooaa  RR eeeeuu  ffiiee.. Yuu mss povvdd hh  ffiiee haa hhyyaaeerrquusstnn nn  sttbbiihh llnntt eeoovv  oorroottttnding  aa iibilltt.. Mrr  rrmmsseett  aa  ff  oouu llaaiiiiyy iil oo eessffiiiinn..<b> R an d g eis eoeo temst onerous and intrusive actions ht the IRS a ae nthe cllection poes ti tems irpiet orlife orbsns and alls for quick atin togtte released.

Tuesday, October 16, 2018

Can I Wash My Dorm Bedding

Can I Wash My Dorm BeddingLiving in the dorms is a rite of passage for most college students. If you purchased or are purchasing bedding for the dorms you will want to make note on whether the items can be washed and if so how?

Dorm Bedding bought in big box stores is notorious for being cheap and flimsy and eventually just being disposable. Because so many styles are made and sold between big box stores and specialty retailers we think it is worth the time to go through what dorm linens can be washed and how whether in the dorms or at home.

Of all the choices available for dorm bedding you have the range of solid color poly filled comforters, plush/novelty fabric sets and on the luxury side down and down alternative bedding. Most of the fashion printed dorm bed in a bag sets you see in stores around July tend to be polyester filled and of an inferior design. The retailers expect the bedding to be perceived as disposable and they can barely make it past the school year before pilling or shrinking with washings.

Polyester filled dorm comforters usually use a batted material which is a bonded layer of polyester that is then sewn sandwiched between the decorative fabrics. These comforters can be washed and dried but usually experience ripped seams or pilled fabric before the end of the year. The best recommendation for this bedding is to use it, enjoy it and throw it away at the end of the school year. Because most students live in the dorms for 1.5 years this may or may not be a worthwhile strategy. These type comforters are also not very helpful for keeping college students warm in the dead of winter. Students often pile on a couple articles of bedding to keep warm.

Plush or Novelty fabric dorm comforters are really difficult to wash and often just shred apart. Again they generally wash like the cheap polyester comforters mentioned above and have a shelf life of 1 year. The plush fabrics are also problematic for allergy suffering students as they plush material acts as a giant sponge for allergens.

Down or Down Alternative comforters are really different on several levels including warmth support, durability, ease of care and longevity. Down bedding is considered the gold standard for luxury bedding and is sought after due to its cloud like physical feeling being so light and silky yet keeping you warm. Down bedding also uses natural fabrics like cotton which help to wick away moisture and just feel good, unlike polyester fabric comforters being clammy feeling. Down dorm bedding can also last several years and go from being a dorm bed comforter to a couch throw over the course of a students living cycle in college. Lastly down bedding is a natural product that can be machine washed and dried with great ease. An additional benefit of dorm down bedding is that the higher thread count fabrics block many allergens from entering the comforter.

Call Accounting and PMS Interfaces

Call Accounting and PMS InterfacesHotels/motels use a PMS (Property Management System) for handling operational data and billing guests (through folios w/room, amenity and other charges). Call accounting systems interface to a PMS so priced call records are posted directly to the guest folios.

Different PMS' use different interfaces. Interfaces differ in how call record data is packaged. Some call accounting systems come pre-programmed from the manufacture, while others must be configured onsite. Most call accounting systems use one of three different types of interfaces: MR (rarely used), and the two most popular, covered here, HB and HX.

PMS-HB. These systems need a line feed (LF) before the call record and three control characters (line feed/LF, carriage return/CR, and form feed/FF) after the call record. PMS-HB systems must recognize one of these three as the end. In testing, FF may catch installers/techs - FF is a form feed and sends paper or a monitor to top of page look back a page for data!

PMS-HB supports 2-way (hand-shaking) and 1-way communication between PMS and call accounting systems (CAS). In 2-way mode, PMS and CAS can handle acknowledgement or non-acknowledgement with each call record. The CAS is told to send or that the call record was received okay or, if not, to hold or that call record needs to be re-sent. Hand-shaking control characters include: ACK (ASCII hex 06) and NAK (ASCII hex 21) - (or lower case y and n). PMS-HB systems usually do NOT require hand-shaking, so when none exists, CAS systems send call records and assume reception was okay.

PMS-HX. HX call accounting systems ask permission to send call records to ensure the PMS is ready, by first sending ENQ (ASCII hex 05) an enquiry. If ready, PMS sends an ACK (ASCII hex 06), so the CAS sends an STX (ASCII hex 02) start-of-text - before the call record, followed by an ETX (ASCII hex 03) end-of-text and a block check character. The block check character allows the PMS to do a parity check for accuracy of the CR received. If the PMS likes the call record, it sends an ACK to the CAS.

It is helpful for installers/techs to use a laptop or monitor on the PMS-to-CAS connection (Laptops are even better w/communication software like HyperTerminal - available on most Windows systems). Some of the communications packages show control characters as icons; e.g. ENQ is a club, ACK an ace, etc. The software often lets you send control characters by pressing ctrl (control key) plus another key. Example: to send ACK, press ctrl with the F key.

Once communication parameters and hand shaking characters are matched up between the CAS and the PMS, youre running! Call accounting manuals usually include very detailed explanations of PMS interface protocols. Manuals or specific tech information can often be downloaded from the CAS manufacturers' site.

Monday, October 15, 2018

Calcium Rich Foods and Calcium Deficiencies - Wealths and Deficits

Calcium Rich Foods and Calcium Deficiencies - Wealths and DeficitsIn an individual's body assessment, bones and teeth require deposits of calcium, in an effort to balance calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies. Also to be accounted for, in balancing the nutritional budget for calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, are nerve impulse transmission, heartbeat regulation, contraction of muscles, meeting fuel obligations in fluids for both cells and lymphatic levels, and adding deposits to support the blood's ability to clot. If one does not meet their respective personal and bodily debts in paying the body with calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies funds, they could risk bleeding the account dry.

Calcium, as an essential mineral, could be considered a precious gem to the body. From the first century, when Romans of ancient history formulated lime into calcium oxide, as a supplemental bodily budgeter for calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, and on to present times, bodies require regular deposits of this valuable asset its role towards sustaining human life.

The worth of Calcium, as it relates to the values of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, is measured by its assets in developing the precious mineral accounting of bones and teeth, at a cost of ninety-nine percent of the take, with the remaining balance of one percent being charged to a body's blood and various tissues. Calcium's dividends are paid to the normal development and growth of bodies. If such dependant residuals are not scheduled in regular payments to the body, in maintaining daily operations of the body, as a bank of existence, huge deficits can break the biological accounting, in the forms of fractures and stunted growth.

Bodies need accurate tellers, in order to balance the daily deposits of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies. Such deposits need to be sizeable, in the denominations of natural calcium, and compiled either through the resources of food or like supplements, in order to keep the body functioning in its operations.

A body has two sources in which to earn its calcium, in to both provide for and shelter calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies. Working for calcium can take place through a person's ingesting and digesting foods that pay in calcium, or, if enough calcium in not earned from eating a balance of, and to avoid, respectively, calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, the body's biology must apply for a loan, by borrowing calcium for its bones. As in any process, whereas borrowing is conducted, there must be a formula devised, in order to reimburse the lender, which, in this case, are the bones. Therefore, it is at the obligation of individuals, respectively, to provide enough of the essential nutrients for their respective bodies, so that bones can be paid back in a duel form of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies.

For individuals to know what to budget into their essential nutrient intake, in regards to calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, they need to know the needs or obligations involved in the expenditures, as the amount of calcium owed to their bodies. The clinically recommended daily nutritional amount of calcium due the body ranges from one thousand to one thousand three hundred milligrams. According to clinical accounting, following a body's processing of the adequate amount foods rich in calcium, to bring the total within acceptable ranges, only from twenty to thirty percent is applied to the body's required account. Therefore, as the body requires more towards the balancing of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, an addition funding of calcium must be delivered into the body to match the funds of such material necessary to, as the expression goes, "make ends meet." Hence, early and conscientious work ethics, by individuals, must be sought out through another natural source beyond food consumption. Such resource can be found in the form of a good quality calcium supplement, in support of calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies.

Those foods that are rich in calcium include dairy products, dried figs, green leafy vegetables, nuts, seaweeds, seeds, tofu and watercress.

To summarize, in the quest of establishing habits for calcium rich foods and calcium deficiencies, individuals can find equitable equity by incorporating any combination of calcium-rich foods, along with the compliment of a calcium supplement of fine quality.

Business Valuations - A Necessary Part Of Buy Sell Agreements

Business Valuations - A Necessary Part Of Buy Sell AgreementsBusiness valuations are very important when you are planning to sell your business. You can determine the value of your business yourself with the help of your accounting department or you can hire a professional business appraiser to determine the value of you business.

If you are a professional, a dentist or doctor and you have your own business you might want to enter into a buy sell agreement with a friendly competitor. In this case you want to have a professional appraisal of you your business value. A buy sell agreement is one option you can have for your family in case you die unexpectedly.

If you have a dental practice and you die unexpectedly your practice will go down in value very quickly because your patients will find another dentist right away. However, if you have a buy sell agreement with another dentist your family will not have to go through having to deal with the loss of value of the business they have inherited from you.

You will have an agreement that you will take out a life insurance policy on the life of your friendly competitor and he will take an insurance policy out on you. If either of you die the other will be the beneficiary and will be able to use the insurance money to buy the business, or in this case, the dental practice from the family of the deceased dentist.

You do need to have a life insurance living trust in place and all of this needs to be prepared by an experienced estate planning lawyer who has done buy sell agreements before. Also, you need to have a trusted life insurance agent to give you the best policy for your situation. The benefit is to your family because your friendly competitor has agreed to pay your family the value of your business as it is now not after you die when the value starts to fall.

Of course you agree to buy his practice from his family with your insurance proceeds if he dies. You both will want to have accurate business valuations done on both your businesses to determine the amount of life insurance you need to take out on the other.

A buy sell agreement also works with partners in one business. If you and your partner own your business and one of you die, then the deceased family becomes the partner of the other. However, let us say that the spouse of the deceased partner does not get along with the surviving owner.

Unless the surviving owner can buy out the deceased spouse then he is looking at a tough time working closely with someone he or she would not have picked as a business partner. However, if the partners bought an insurance policy on the other valued at what their business is worth, they can by the deceased heirs interest in the business.

Again you need an experienced estate planning attorney to prepare a buy sell agreement and living trust. In all of these options you need to have accurate business valuations to make sure you have the proper amount of life insurance coverage.
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